Robin Fleming (Boston College)


From 13:30
to 15:00
From 13:30
to 15:00

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this course, we study the history and archaeology of Roman provincial societies in the first and second centuries outside Europe––in North Africa, Egypt, Greater Syria, and Anatolia––the brains and the belly of the empire, and challenge the popular, culture-wide memory of the Roman Empire as a European Empire.
The course has three main objectives. The first is to understand where the popular, culture-wide memory of the Roman Empire as a European Empire comes from, to challenge this memory in light of recent archaeology, and to present Roman history in a more global, multicultural mode. The second objective is to hone students’ ability to work as a member of a team and produce high-quality collaborative work. Finally, the class will teach students how to do more public-facing history and translate the knowledge they gain into historically accurate, compelling, well-researched presentations, the aim of which is to inform and excite a broader public about what it was like to be Roman in a provincial society in the extensive imperial possessions outside of Europe.
The class includes a required class trip to Aquileia.

Teaching and Evaluation Methods
This course is a mixed lecture and discussion-based course, with an emphasis on discussion, so a commitment to careful reading and engaged discussion are important components of your grade. Because of this, we will have a short (easy if you have done the reading, impossible if you have not) reading quiz at the beginning of every class. Students’ main work for the semester is creating, with other members of their team, two highly illustrated, well-researched half-hour presentations––one on life in one of four towns in Roman Syria or North Africa and the other on the impact on the Roman army on Judaea, Roman Syria, Anatolia, or Egypt.
Reading quizzes 15%;
class participation 15%,
first group presentation 30%,
second group presentation 40%.

Course Structure:
Lecture Days:
In about half of our classes, I will give a short lecture to contextualize our readings, never more than a half-an- hour long. I will also show slides to familiarize students with the archaeology and material culture of Rome outside Europe. The rest of the class on these days will be devoted to learning the basic chronology and historical questions of the topic under discussion, and we will discuss the day’s reading. On both lecture days and discussion days, we will begin class with a short reading quiz (more, below on why and how these quizzes are related to your grade).

Discussion Days:
We will have a general class discussion of the material assigned for the day. On these days, you will engage with some of the period’s most thorny interpretive problems and debates.

Tutorial Weeks and the Creation of Group-Researched, Written, and Produced Presentations:
The class also has two five-class-long tutorials during which students will collaborate to write, produce, and present two 25 to 30-minute public lectures accompanied by PowerPoint illustrations. Students will be placed in one of four groups, each assigned a different but related set of readings. Before the first day of the tutorial, all group members will have read and taken extensive notes on the first of the articles assigned to the group. You will divide up the remaining readings, with each student responsible for another reading. Between the end of the first group meeting and the last day of the last two days of the tutorial, students are expected to meet not only during class time, but outside of it, in order to hash out––based on all the group’s readings, discussions among themselves, and the discussions we have in class––what they think are the most important points of the reading. Groups will then turn their ideas into a presentation (using a Google Doc to group-write a good draft of the text you will use for your public lecture). On the last two days of the Tutorial Colloquium, each group will give their lectures to other members of the class, and we will have a class discussion on the major takeaways and findings. These presentations will teach students in other groups the most important content and takeaways from your readings. At the end of the tutorial, each group will turn in a final script of the lecture and share it with me as a link to the Google Doc.



Course Calendar and Reading Schedule

Topic 1: The Ancient World Wasn’t White
Class 1
Mapping the Roman Empire

Class 2
Mini Lecture: Not Your Grandfather’s Rome; Not Your Grandfather’s Evidence Discussion of Reading/podcast:1
• Kwame A. Appia, “There Is No Such Thing as Western Civilization,” Guardian (2016):
• Dan-el Padilla Peralta: Barbarians Inside the Gate, Part I | by Dan-el Padilla Peralta | EIDOLON (2015).
• Katherine Harloe, “Detoxifying the Classics,” BBC (2021), 28 minutes:
•Selections from Elizabeth Boyle, Fierce Appetites.


Topic 2: Conquest, Annexation, Incorporation
Class 3
Mini Lecture: Making Imperial Territory Outside Europe Discussion of Reading:
• Katelijn Vandorpe, “Egypt Integrated into Expanding Networks,” in Wim Hupperetz et al., eds., Keys to Rome (Leiden, 2017), 49–58.
• Cisca Hoogendijk, “Entertainment in Roman Egypt,” in Wim Hupperetz et al., eds., Keys to Rome
(Leiden, 2017), 162–6.

Class 4
Mini Lecture: Mediterranean Urbanization Discussion of Reading
• Andrew Wilson, “Incurring the Wrath of Mars: Sanitation and Hygiene in Roman North Africa,” in
G.C.M. Jansen, ed., Cura Aquarum in Sicilia. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on the History of Water Management and Hydraulic Engineering in the Mediterranean Region (Berlin, 2000), 307–12.
•J. Andrew Dufton, “The Architectural and Social Dynamics of Gentrification in Roman North Africa,”
American Journal of Archaeology, 123:2 (2019), read only 263–9, 283–6.


Topic 3: Elites and Non-Elites in the Provinces
Class 5
Mini Lecture: Provincial Towns, Local Elites, and the Paideia
Discussion of Reading
• S.R. Huebner, “‘The Carpenter’s Son:’ The Family and Household of a Craftsmen,” in idem, Papyri and the Social World of the New Testament (Cambridge, 2019), 65–86.

Class 6
Discussion of Readings:
Everyone read:
• Jane Wester, “Creolizing the Roman Provinces,” 1.

One-half of the class reads:
• David Mattingly, “Identities in the Roman World: Discrepancy, Heterogeneity, Hybridity, and
Plurality,” in Lisa R. Brody and Gail L. Hoffman, eds., Roman in the Provinces: Art on the Periphery of Empire (Chicago, 2014), 35–60. Reading can be found here: Roman in the provinces : art on the periphery of Empire : Brody, Lisa R., editor : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

One-half of the class reads:
• Ralph Haeussler and Elizabeth Webster, “Creolage. A Bottom-Up Approach to Cultural Change in Roman Times,” Theoretical Roman Archaeology Journal, 3:1 (2020), 1–22.
Each group will be responsible for teaching the other group the main takeaways of their articles. You will have the first half-hour of class to discuss your article as a group and come up with a plan for how to teach it.

We will then have a general discussion about how to think about what used to be called “Romanization.”


Topic 4: How Roman Were People in the Provinces?
Class 7
Mini Lecture: Identity in a Provincial Context: Two Houses in Trimithis Discussion of Readings:
• Simon Ellis, “Art in Roman Town Houses,” in Barbara E. Borg,s A Companion to Roman Art Contexts
(London, 2015), 365–87, read only 369–top of 371; 380–5.
•Roger Bagnall, “The Oasis Economy,” and “Oasis Society,” in Roger S. Bagnall et al., An Oasis City
(New York, 2015), 149–56, 174–7. [Read while referring to the Map of Egypt’s Western Desert.]
• Map of Egypt’s Western Desert.


Tutorial 1: Four Provincial Cities [please see the list of each group’s readings]
Class 8
• Tutorial Work

Class Trip to Aquileia [Friday of week 4]

Class 9
•Tutorial Work

Class 10
• Tutorial Work

Class 11
• Group Lectures and Discussion

Class 12
•Group Lectures and Discussions


Midterm Break


Topic 5: Trade Beyond the Empire
Class 14
Mini Lecture: Trade Beyond the Empire Discussion of Reading:
• Selections from the Periplus of the Erythaean Sea
• Muziris Papyrus
• Marike van Aerde and Daniele Zampierin, “A Lot of Pepper and a Little Garum: An Archaeological Comparison of the Roman Presence at Berenike and Arikamedu,” Ancient West and East, 19 (2020), 245–66, read only 161–4.

Class 15
Mini Lecture: Nodes of Connectivity: Three Settlements in Egypt’s Eastern Desert Discussion of Reading:
• Yann Broux, “Trade Networks Among the Army Camps of the Eastern Desert of Roman Egypt,” in
F.T. Håkon and E.H. Seland, eds., Sinews of Empire (Oxford, 2017), 1–11.


Topic 6: “Barbarians”
Class 16
Mini Lecture: Nomads, Pastoralists, and Traders Discussion of Reading:
• Chloé N. Duckworth and David J. Mattingly, “The Biography of Roman Vessel Glass in the Sahara Desert,” in Daniela Rosenow et al., eds., Things that Travelled: Mediterranean Glass in the First Millennium AD (London, 2018), 134–58. N.B.: read only 134–8 and 143–55.
• Judith Scheele, “The Need for Nomads: Camel Herding, Raiding, and Saharan Trade and Settlement,” in D.J. Mattingly et al., eds. Trade in the Ancient Sahara and Beyond (Cambridge, 2017), 55–76, read only 55–66 and 75–6.

Class 17
Discussion of Reading:
• Michael A.C. MacDonald, “‘Romans Go Home?’ Rome and Other ‘Outsiders’ as Viewed from the Syro- Arabian Desert,” in Jitse H.F. Dijkstrata and Greg Fisher, eds. Inside and Out: Interactions Between Romans and the Peoples on the Arabian and Egyptian Frontiers in Late Antiquity (Leuven, 2014), 145–164.
•Kyle Helms, “Pompeii’s Safaitic Graffitti,” Journal of Roman Studies, 111 (2021), 203–14.


Topic 7: The Roman Army
Class 18
Mini Lecture: Legionaries, Poets, and Provincials

Discussion of Readings:
* Two poems by Roman officers.
• Jacquelin Austin, “Latin, Literacy, and Learning,” Writers and Writing in the Roman Army at Dura- Europos (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Birmingham, 2010), 89–96, 100–3.
• Simon James, “‘The Romanness of the Soldiers’: Barbarized Periphery or Imperial Core,” in Lisa R. Brody and Gail L. Hoffman, eds., Roman in the Provinces: Art on the Periphery of Empire (Chicago, 2014), 91–108, read only 91–99. The link to this reading can be found here: Roman in the provinces : art on the periphery of Empire : Brody, Lisa R., editor : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

Class 19
Mini Lecture: Karenis: Case Study of Roman Veterans in an Egyptian Village

Discussion of Readings:

One-half of the class will read:
•Simon James: “Ghost Train: the (almost) invisible dependants of the Roman Garrison at Dura-Europos, Syria,” in Tatiana Ivleva et al., eds., Embracing the Provinces: Society and Material Culture of the Roman Frontier Regions (Oxford, 2018), 37–48.

One-half of the class will read:
• Annette Paetz gen. Schieck, “A Late Roman Painting of an Egyptian Officer and the Layers of Its Perception. On the Relation Between Images and Textile Finds,” in Marie-Loise Nosch, Wearing the Cloak: Dressing the Roman Soldier in Roman Times (Oxford, 2012), 85–106.

Each group will teach others in their class about the thesis and main takeaways of their article, followed by a class discussion.


Topic 8: Religion and Burial in the Provinces
Class 20
Mini Lecture: Religion(s) in the Empire Discussion of Readings:
• Federick G. Naerebout, “How Do You Want Your Goddess? From the Galjub Hoard to a General Vision on Religious Choice in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt,” in Laurent Bricault and Miguel John Versluys, eds., Isis on the Nile. Egyptian Gods in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt (Leiden, 2010), 55–73.
• Jennifer L. Ball, “Charms: Protective and Auspicious Motifs,” in Thelma K. Thomas, ed. Designing Identity: The Power of Textiles in Late Antiquity (Princeton, 2016), 55–63.

Class 21
Discussion of Readings:
• Christopher H. Hallett, “Mummies with Painted Portraits from Roman Egypt and Personal Commemoration at the Tomb,” in Michael Blömer and Rubina Raja, eds., Funerary Portraiture in Greater Syria (Turnhout, 2019), 197–212.
• Kevin Butcher, “Continuity and Change in Lebanese Temples,’ in Andrew Gardner et al., eds. Creating Ethnicities and Identities in the Roman World (London, 2009), 195–209.


Tutorial 2: Soldiers in the Provinces [please see the list of each group’s readings]
Class 22
• Tutorial Work

Class 23
• Tutorial Work

Class 24
• Tutorial Work

Finals Week:
Group Presentations


You do not need to purchase any books for this course because all readings are accessible through the course website. Always pay attention to the pages assigned. I have uploaded or linked to a number of whole books or articles on Moodle but have only assigned a few pages from some of them!

The readings are organized by class day, and all readings must be completed and thought about before the class for which they have been assigned. We will have a short, five-minute reading quiz at the beginning of every class except on our tutorial days. In total, these quizzes will constitute a significant percentage of the course grade. There are no makeups, but you are allowed to drop two (either your lowest scores or missed quizzes) over the course of the semester. The questions will be a snap if you have done the reading but impossible if you have not. Their point is to incentivize you to keep up with the reading so that you can participate in an informed way in this discussion-based course. There are no midterms, finals, or individually written papers, but only two tutorial group-written and produced public lectures. So, doing the reading consistently and in a timely fashion and participating in discussions and tutorials are things to which you need to commit.

Reading Quizzes 15%
Class Participation 15%
Tutorial 1 Presentation 30%
Tutorial 2 Presentation 40%


It is very important that we stay in touch. This class assumes that you check your email at least once a day, Monday through Thursday, sometime between 9 am and 5 pm, and that you have read any email I send you within 24 hours. This class also assumes that you read all class announcements posted on the class Moodle site in a timely fashion.

If you cannot make my office hours, I am always happy to make an appointment for an in-person meeting or to answer questions via Zoom or email. I do not, however, answer emails after 5 pm. So, if you haven’t bothered to figure out how Moodle works, you cannot email me in a panic at 2 am on Sunday night and expect an answer soon enough to get you out of hot water for a Monday morning class!


A Few Hard Words and Warnings:
Reading and discussion are the central work of this class and are a large component of your grade. University students not only learn from their professors, but they learn from interactions with their fellow students. Everyone is expected to help everyone else in this class learn. Consistently sponging off the hard work of others– –both in our class discussions of readings and in group projects––will guarantee you a low grade in this course. If you are shy or not very confident about your abilities to tease interesting ideas from our readings, come see me early in the semester, and we will figure something out together. But if you tell me that you are shy in week thirteen of the semester, after never having opened your mouth or actively participated in group work, things are not going to go well for you.


Tutorial Readings Assigned to Each Group:

Tutorial 1: Four Provincial Cities

Each group will research a different provincial city, paying particular attention to local cultures and peoples and their versions of Romanness. Over the course of this tutorial, each group will create a 25- to 30-minute presentation. Students in each group will all read the first article listed for their group and then divide the remaining reading among themselves, with everyone reading another of the articles and ensuring that at least two people read each. The web link at the end of each group’s reading is there to provide you with some visuals.

Group One: Petra
•Blair Fowlkes-Childs and Michael Seymour, “Nabataea,” in idem, The World Between Empires: Art and Identity in the Ancient Middle East (New Haven, 2019), 45–78.
•Raoul McLaughlin, “The Intermediaries: Petra and the Nabataeans,” in idem, The Roman Empire and the Indian Ocean (Barnsley, 2014), 50–8.
•Matthew Peacock, “The ‘Romanization’ of Petra,” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, 120 (2013), 169–93.
• Andrew Lawler, “Reconstructing Petra,” Smithsonian Magazine (June, 2007), 42–9.
• Tali Erickson-Gini and Yigal Israel, “Excavating the Nabataean Incense Road,” Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies, 1:1 (2013), 24–53.
• J.J. Basile, “Two Visual Languages at Petra: Aniconic and Representational Sculpture of the Great Temple,” Near Eastern Archaeology, 65:4 (2002), 255–8.
•Jacqueline Studer and Annegret Schneider, “Camel Use in the Petra Region, Jordan: 1st Century BC to 4th Century AD,” in Archaeozoology of the Near East VIII. Actes des huitièmes Rencontres internationales d'Archéozoologie de l'Asie du Sud-Ouest et des régions adjacentes pp(Lyon, 2008), 581- 596.
• Zbigniew T. Fiema, Roman Petra (A.D. 106–363): A Neglected Subject,” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, 119:1, 383-58.

Group Two: Palmyra
• Blair Fowlkes-Childs and Michael Seymour, “Palmyra,” in idem, The World Between Empires: Art and Identity in the Ancient Middle East (New Haven, 2019), 141–78.
• Andrew M. Smith, “Framing the Narrative,” in idem, Roman Palmyra: Identity, Community, and State Formation (Oxford, 2013), 1–32.
• Eivind Heldaas Seland, “Development of Palmyrene Long-Distance Trade,” in idem, Ships of the Desert and Ships of the Sea: Palmyra in the World Trade of the First Three Centuries CE (Wiesbaden, 2016), 75–88.
• Nathanael J. Andrade, “Hadrian and Palmyra: Contrasting Visions of Greekness (First to Third Centuries CE),” in idem, Syrian Identity in the Greco-Roman World (Cambridge, 2013), 171–210.
Rubina Raja, “Making––and Breaking––Ties: Palmyra, Rome, and Parthia,” in idem, Pearl of the Desert: A History of Palmyra (Oxford, 2022), 87–104.

Group Three: Dura-Europos
• Blair Fowlkes-Childs and Michael Seymour, “Dura-Europos,” in idem, The World Between Empires: Art and Identity in the Ancient Middle East (New Haven, 2019), 179–210.
• M. Sommer, “Acculturation, Hybridity, Créolité: Mapping Cultural Diversity in Dura-Europos,” in T. Kaizer, ed. Religion, Society, and the Culture at Dura-Europos (Cambridge, 2016), 57–67.
• Lucinda Dirven, “Strangers and Sojourners: The Religious Behavior of Palmyrenes and Other Foreigners in Dura-Europos,” in Lisa Brody and Gail Hoffman, ed. Dura-Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity (Chicago, 2011), 201–15.
• Kai Ruffing, “Economic Life in Roman Dura-Europos,” in T. Kaizer, ed., Religion, Society, and the Culture at Dura-Europos (Cambridge, 2016), 190–8.
• George D. Kilpatrick, “Dura-Europos: The Parchments and the Papyri,” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 5 (1964), 215–25.
• J.A. Baird, “The Material Culture and Art of Dura-Europos,” in idem, Dura-Europos (London, 2018), 123–51.
• Nathanael J. Andrade, “Dura-Europos: Changing Paradigms for Civic Greekness,” in idem, Syrian Identity in the Greco-Roman World (Cambridge, 2013), 211–41.

Group Four: North African Cities
• David Soren et al., “Creating the Age of Gold,” in idem, Carthage: Uncovering the Mysteries and Splendors of Ancient Tunisia (New York, 1990), 187–210.
• Henry Hurst, “Understanding Carthage as a Roman Port,” Bollettino di Archeologia (2008), 49–68.
• Ralf Bockmann, “African Rome. The City of Carthage from its Roman (Re)-foundation to the End of the Byzantine Period,” in R. Bruce Hitchner, ed., A Companion to North Africa in Antiquity (Malden, 2022), 119–41. NB: read only 119–128.
• J. Andrew Dufton and Elizabeth Fentress, “Roman North African Urbanism,” in R. Bruce Hitchner, ed., A Companion to North Africa in Antiquity (Malden, 2022), 173–201.
•Robert Daniels, “Punic Influence in the Domestic Architecture of Roman Volubilis (Morocco),”
Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 14:1 (1995), 79–95.
• Jennifer P. Moore, “The ‘Mausoleum Culture’ of Africa Proconsularis,” in David L. Stone and Lea M. Stirling, Mortuary Landscapes of North Africa (Toronto, 2007), 75–106. en


Tutorial 2: Soldiers in the Provinces

 Each group will research a different provincial city, paying particular attention to local cultures and peoples and their versions of Romanness. Over the course of this tutorial, each group will create a 25- to 30-minute presentation. Students in each group will all read the first article listed for their group and then divide the remaining reading among themselves, ensuring that at least two people read each.

Group One: Judaea
• Frank Russell, “Roman Counterinsurgency Policy and Practice in Judaea,” in Timothy Howe and Lee
L. Brice, eds., Brill’s Companion to Insurgency and Terrorism in the Ancient Mediterranean (Leiden, 2016), 248–75.
• John Curran, “‘The Long Hesitation:’ Some Reflections on the Romans in Judaea,” Greece & Rome, 52:1 (2005), 70–98.
• Christopher B. Zeichmann, “Military Forces in Judaea 6–130 CE: The Status Quaestionis and Relevance for New Testament Studies,” Current Biblical Research, 17:1 (2018), 86–120. N.B.: only read 86–94.
• Hannah M. Cotton, “The Impact of the Roman Army in the Province of Judaea/Syria Palaestina,” in Lukas de Blois and Elio Lo Cascio, eds., The Impact of the Roman Army (200 BC–AD 476): Economic, Social, Political, Religious and Cultural Aspects (Leiden, 2007), 393–407.
• Jonathan Roth, “The Army and the Economy in Judaea and Palestine,” in Paul Erdkamp, ed. The Roman Army and the Economy (Leiden, 2002), 375–97.
• Adrian Goldsworthy, “‘Men Casually Armed Against Fully Equipped Regulars:’ The Roman Military Response to Jewish Insurgence 63 BCE–135CE,” in Peter J. Tomson and Joshua J. Schwartz, eds., Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries: How to Write Their History (Leiden, 2014), 207–37.

Group Two: Dura Europos
• Simon James, The Roman Military Base at Dura-Europos, Syria: An Archaeological Visualization
chapters 4, 9, 13, 14 (pages 49–60; 241–55; 275–85, 286–313.
• J.A. Baird, “The Roman Military at Dura and the Transformation of Houses,” in idem, The Inner Lives of Ancient Houses: An Archaeology of Dura-Europos (Oxford, 2014), 115–142.
Ben Zion Rosenfeld and Rivka Potchebutzky, “The Civilian-Military Community in the Two Phases of the Synagogue at Dura Europos: A New Approach,” Levant, 41 (2009), 195–222.

Group Three: Central Anatolia
• Adam Izdebski et al., “The Environmental, Archaeological and Historical Evidence for Regional Climatic Changes and their Societal Impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean in Late Antiquity,” Quaternary Science Reviews, 136 (2016), 189–208.
•Turan Takaoglu, “Adapting to a Diverse Landscape: Agriculture in Hellenistic and Roman Anatolia,” in David Hollander and Timothy Howe, eds., A Companion to Ancient Agriculture (Hoboken, NJ, 2021), 363–82.
• Julian Bennett, “Agricultural Strategies and the Roman Military in Central Anatolia During the Early Imperial Period,” OLBA, 21 (2013), 315–39.
• John M. Marston and Naomi F. Miller, “Intensive Agriculture and Land Use at Roman Gordion, Central Turkey,” Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 23 (2014), 761–73.
• Canan Çakırlar and John M. Marston, “Rural Agricultural Economies and Military Provisioning at Roman Gordion (Central Turkey),” Environmental Archaeology 24:1 (2019), 91-105.
• Melissa S. Rosenzweig and John M. Marston, “Archaeologies of Empire and Environment,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 52 (2018), 87–102.
• Lead mining podcast:
• Joseph McConnell et al., “Lead Pollution Record in Greenland Ice Indicates European Emissions Tracked Plagues, Wars, and Imperial Expansion During Antiquity,” PNAS, 115:22 (2022), 5726–31.
• G. Margaritelli et al., “Persistent Warm Mediterranean Surface Waters During the Roman Period,”
Nature, Scientific Reports, 10 (2020), 1–10

Group Four: Egypt
• Richard Alston, “The Army in Action,” in idem, Soldiers and Society in Roman Egypt: A Social History
(London, 1995), 69–101.
• Rudolf Haensch, “The Roman Army in Egypt,” in Christina Riggs, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt (Oxford, 2012), 1–18.
• Peter van Minnen and Hendrikje Nouwens, “The Roman Army in Egypt,” in Wim Hupperetz et al., eds., Keys to Rome (Leiden, 2017), 32–8.
• Colin Adams, “Irregular Levies and the Impact of the Roman Army in Egypt,” in Luka de Blois and Elio Lo Cascio, eds., The Impact of the Roman Army (200BC–AD 476): Economic, Social, Political, Religious, and Cultural Aspects (Leiden, 2007), 281–91.
• C.E.P. Adams, “Supplying the Roman Army: Bureaucracy in Roman Egypt,” in A. Goldsworth and I. Haynes, eds., The Roman Army as a Community (Portsmouth, R.I., 1999), 119–26.
• Roger S. Bagnall, “Army and Police in Roman Upper Egypt,” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 14 (1977), 67–77.
• Sara Elise Phang, “The Families of Roman Soldiers (First and Second Centuries A.D.): Culture, Law, and Practice,” Journal of Family History, 27:4 (2002), 352–86.



Last updated: July 4, 2023


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